Post Brown v. Board of Education led to a uprising of riots and people who struggled to let go of their segregationist ways. This was a dangerous time for people of color as their rights came with a cost.
Yet post Brown v. Board of Topeka, even though on a national level and on a government level segregation in schooling was prohibited, this didn't change the way people treated those of color. This left many states confused on where to go from there.
This was interpreted in different ways. In the case of Brown v. Board of Topeka, the Supreme Court case is consolidating 5 cases from different states all revolving around the same issue of segregation.